Oxidation zone tellurium minerals

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Marco E. Ciriotti
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Oxidation zone tellurium minerals

Messaggio da Marco E. Ciriotti » lun 18 ott, 2010 10:37

Referenza:
• Marty, J. & Rose, T. (2010): Oxidation zone tellurium minerals. International Micromounters Journal, 17, 7-8.

Oxide-zone tellurium minerals are relatively rare worldwide, but often occur as attractive microcrystals that are highly sought after by micromounters. Table 1 is a list of the 71 known Te-oxide minerals, 68 of which are considered valid species; most are either tellurite (Te4+O3)2- or tellurate (Te6+O6)6- species. Also included are information on the type locality, the year that each mineral was described in the literature, and whether the mineral is considered a valid species (Y = yes, Q = questionable).
Remarkably, over 60% of the species (43 out of 71) were discovered at only four deposits: Moctezuma, Mexico; Tombstone, Arizona; Centennial Eureka Mine, Utah; and Otto Mountain, California. In fact, nearly a third of all Te-O mineral species were discovered in just one deposit: Moctezuma. Many of these species are still found at only one locality today.
The chemistry of the Te-oxide minerals naturally reflects the types of deposits in which they are found. The four leading occurrences listed above are all oxidized base metal deposits, and not surprisingly, 60% of all Te-O minerals contain Pb and/or Cu. If Zn and Fe are added in, this increases to 84%. Although primary Te minerals are often associated with gold and silver deposits, these elements are almost never essential chemical constituents in the oxidized Te minerals (with one exception – quetzalcoatlite contains a small amount of silver). However, gold and silver minerals are often found in close association with the Te-O minerals.
Prior to 1960, only seven Te-oxide minerals were known – two of which are now considered to be questionable species. In the 1960s and 1970s, there was a rapid expansion in the number of new Te-O species (28 new species in 20 years) which coincided with mineralogical studies of the Moctezuma and Tombstone deposits. Another 24 species were added in the 1980s and 1990s, but these represent a somewhat wider range of occurrences. The most notable new find during this period was the discovery of six new species from the Centennial Eureka Mine, Tintic District, Utah. One of these new species (eurekadumpite) was just described in 2010. Only four new species were described between 2000 and 2009, but in 2010 a new occurrence at Otto Mountain, California was described by Tony Kampf and his colleagues that has produced seven new species (see American Mineralogist, v. 95) with more likely to come.
Although there are presently a small number of worldwide occurrences for Te-O mineral species, the rather unique geochemistry of these deposits appears to favor the formation of new mineral species. It therefore seems likely that as more tellurium-bearing deposits are investigated, there will be a corresponding increase in the number of Te-oxide mineral species.

Table 1. List of Te-oxide minerals, their type localities, year of publication, and species status.
mineral
chemical formula
type locale
year described
valid species?
1
Balyakinite
CuTeO3
Pionersk deposit, Sayan, Russia
1980
Y
2
Blakeite
Fe3+2[TeO3]3 (?)
Goldfield, Nevada
1944
Q
3
Brumadoite
Cu3(Te6+O4)(OH)4 · 5H2O
Brumado, Bahia, Brazil
2008
Y
4
Burckhardtite
Pb2(Fe,Mn)AlTeO2Si3O10(OH)2 · H2O
Moctezuma, Sonora, Mexico
1979
Y
5
Carlfriesite
CaTe3O8
Moctezuma, Sonora, Mexico
1975
Y
6
Cesbronite
Cu5[(OH)3|TeO3]2 ·2H2O
Moctezuma, Sonora, Mexico
1974
Y
7
Chekhovichite
Bi2Te4O11
Zod Deposit, Armenia
1987
Y
8
Cheremnykhite
Pb3Zn3TeO6(VO4)2
Kuranakh Deposit, E. Siberia, Russia
1990
Y
9
Chiluite
Bi6Mo2Te2O21
Chilu Deposit, Fujian Prov., China
1991
Y
10
Choloalite
PbCu[TeO3]2 · H2O
Moctezuma, Sonora, Mexico
1981
Y
11
Cliffordite
UTe3O9
Moctezuma, Sonora, Mexico
1969
Y
12
Cuzticite
Fe3+2[TeO6]· 3H2O
Moctezuma, Sonora, Mexico
1982
Y
13
Denningite
(Mn2+,Ca,Zn)[Te4+2O5]
Moctezuma, Sonora, Mexico
1961
Y
14
Dugganite
Pb3Zn3(Te6+O6)(AsO4)2
Tombstone, Arizona
1978
Y
15
Emmonsite
Fe3+2[TeO3]3 · 2H2O
Tombstone, Arizona
1885
Y
16
Eurekadumpite
(Cu,Zn)16(TeO3)2(AsO4)3Cl(OH)18 · 7H2O
Centennial Eureka Mine, Utah
2010
Y
17
Eztlite
Pb2Fe3+6[(OH)10|(Te 4+O3)3|Te6+O6] · 8H2O
Moctezuma, Sonora, Mexico
1982
Y
18
Fairbankite
PbTeO3
Tombstone, Arizona
1979
Y
19
Frankhawthorneite
Cu2 [(OH)2|TeO4]
Centennial Eureka Mine, Utah
1995
Y
20
Girdite
Pb3H2[Te4+O3|Te6+O6]
Tombstone, Arizona
1979
Y
21
Graemite
Cu[TeO3] · H2O
Bisbee, Arizona
1975
Y
22
Housleyite
Pb6CuTe6+4O18(OH)2
Otto Mountain, California
2010
Y
23
Jensenite
Cu3[TeO6] · 2H2O
Centennial Eureka Mine, Utah
1996
Y
24
Joëlbruggerite
Pb3Zn3(Sb5+,Te6+)As2O13(OH,O)
Black Pine Mine, Montana
2009
Y
25
Juabite
CaCu10[OH|(AsO4)2|(TeO3)2]2 · 4H2O
Centennial Eureka Mine, Utah
1997
Y
26
Keystoneite
(Ni,Mg,Fe,Mn)3Te3O9 · 5H2O
Keystone Mine, Colorado
1988
Y
27
Khinite
Pb2+Cu2+3(TeO6)(OH)2
Tombstone, Arizona
1978
Y
28
Kinichilite
(Fe,Mg,Zn)2(TeO3)3(NaxH2-x)· 3H2O
Kawazu Mine, Japan
1981
Y
29
Kuksite
Pb3Zn3TeP2O14
Kuranakh Deposit, E. Siberia, Russia
1990
Y
30
Kuranakhite
PbMn4+Te6+O6
Kuranakh Deposit, E. Siberia, Russia
1975
Y
31
Leisingite
Cu(Mg,Cu,Fe,Zn)2[TeO6] · 6H2O
Centennial Eureka Mine, Utah
1996
Y
32
Mackayite
Fe3+[OH|Te4+2O5]
Goldfield, Nevada
1944
Y
33
Magnolite
Hg2TeO3
Keystone Mine, Colorado
1877
Y
34
Markcooperite
Pb2(UO2)TeO6
Otto Mountain, California
2010
Y
35
Mcalpineite
Cu3[TeO6] · H2O
McAlpine Mine, California
1994
Y
36
Moctezumite
PbUO2(TeO3)2
Moctezuma, Sonora, Mexico
1965
Y
37
Montanite
Bi2[TeO6] · 2H2O
Highland District, Montana
1868
Y
38
Mroseite
CaTeO2CO3
Moctezuma, Sonora, Mexico
1975
Y
39
Nabokoite
KCu7Te4+[Cl|O4|(SO4)5]
Tolbachik Volcano, Russia
1987
Y
40
Oboyerite
Pb6H6[(Te4+O3)3|(Te6+O6)2] · 2H2O
Tombstone, Arizona
1979
Y
41
Ottoite
Pb2TeO5
Otto Mountain, California
2010
Y
42
Parakhinite
Pb2+Cu2+3(TeO6)(OH)2
Tombstone, Arizona
1978
Q
43
Paratellurite
TeO2
Moctezuma, Sonora, Mexico
1960
Y
44
Paratimroseite
Pb2Cu4(TeO6)2(H2O)2
Otto Mountain, California
2010
Y
45
Pingguite
Bi6Te2O13
Yangjia Deposit, China
1994
Y
46
Plumbotellurite
PbTeO3
Zhana-Tyube Deposit, Kazakhstan
1982
Y
47
Poughite
Fe3+2[SO4|(TeO3)2] · 3H2O
Moctezuma, Sonora, Mexico
1968
Y
48
Quetzalcoatlite
Zn6Cu3(TeO6)2(OH)6 · AgxPbyClx+2y
Moctezuma, Sonora, Mexico
1973
Y
49
Rajite
Cu[Te4+2O5]
Lone Pine Mine, New Mexico
1979
Y
50
Rodalquilarite
H3Fe2(TeO3)4Cl
Rodalquilar Deposit, Spain
1968
Y
51
Schieffelinite
Pb8(TeO4)5(SO4)3 · 8H2O
Tombstone, Arizona
1980
Y
52
Schmitterite
(UO2)[TeO3]
Moctezuma, Sonora, Mexico
1971
Y
53
Smirnite
(BiO)2[TeO3]
Zod Deposit, Armenia
1984
Y
54
Sonoraite
Fe3+[OH|TeO3] · H2O
Moctezuma, Sonora, Mexico
1968
Y
55
Spiroffite
(Mn,Zn)2Te3O8
Moctezuma, Sonora, Mexico
1963
Y
56
Teineite
Cu[TeO3] · 2H2O
Teine Mine, Japan
1939
Y
57
Tellurite
TeO2
Fa?a B?ii, Romania
1842
Y
58
Telluroperite
Pb3TeO4Cl2
Otto Mountain, California
2010
Y
59
Thorneite
Pb6(Te6+2O10)(CO3)Cl2(H2O)
Otto Mountain, California
2010
Y
60
Timroseite
Pb2Cu5(TeO6)2(OH)2
Otto Mountain, California
2010
Y
61
Tlalocite
Cu10Zn6(TeO3)(TeO4)2Cl(OH)25 · 27H2O
Moctezuma, Sonora, Mexico
1975
Y
62
Tlapallite
H6(Ca,Pb)2(Cu,Zn)3(SO4)(TeO3)4(TeO6)
Moctezuma, Sonora, Mexico
1978
Y
63
Utahite
Cu5Zn3[(OH)2|TeO4]4 · 7H2O
Centennial Eureka Mine, Utah
1997
Y
64
Walfordite
(Fe3+,Te6+)Te4+3O8
Wendy Mine, Coquimbo, Chile
1999
Y
65
Winstanleyite
TiTe3O8
Tombstone, Arizona
1979
Y
66
Xocolatlite
Ca2Mn4+2Te6+2O12 · H2O
Moctezuma, Sonora, Mexico
2008
Y
67
Xocomecatlite
Cu3[(OH)4|TeO4]
Moctezuma, Sonora, Mexico
1975
Y
68
Yafsoanite
Ca3Zn3[TeO6]2
Kuranakh Deposit, E. Siberia, Russia
1982
Y
69
Yecoraite
Fe3+3(BiO)5(Te4+O3)(Te6+O6)2 · 9H2O
Yecora, Sonora, Mexico
1985
Y
70
Zemannite
Mg(Zn,Fe)2(TeO3)6 · 9H2O
Moctezuma, Sonora, Mexico
1976
Y
71
Zincospiroffite
Zn2[Te3O8]
Zhongshangou Deposit, Hebei, China
2004
Y
Marco E. Ciriotti

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