Esseneite and kushiroite in tschermakite-bearing calc-silicate xenoliths ejected in alkali basalt

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Marco E. Ciriotti
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Esseneite and kushiroite in tschermakite-bearing calc-silicate xenoliths ejected in alkali basalt

Messaggio da Marco E. Ciriotti » ven 28 gen, 2022 10:45

▪ Reato, L., Huraiová, M., Konečný, P., Marko, F., Hurai, V. (2022): Formation of Esseneite and Kushiroite in Tschermakite-Bearing Calc-Silicate Xenoliths ejected in Alkali Basalt. Minerals, 12, 156.

Skarnoid calc-silicate xenoliths composed of anorthite, clinopyroxene and Mg-Al spinel occur in alkali basalts of the Pliocene-Pleistocene intra-plate magmatic province in the northern part of the Pannonian Basin. Randomly oriented and elongated pseudomorphs are tschermakite crystals replaced by olivine, spinel and plagioclase. The relict amphibole within the pseudomorphs is characterized by high VIAl, between 1.95 and 2.1, and very low occupancy of the A-site (<0.1 apfu)—these features are rarely found in nature and are thought to be diagnostic of high-pressure metamorphic rocks. Pyroxene compositions plot along continuous mixing line extending from nearly pure diopside-augite towards a Ca(Fe3+Al)AlSiO6 endmember with an equal proportion of VIAl3+ and Fe3+. Concentrations of kushiroite CaAlAlSiO6 endmember, up to 47.5 mol%, are the highest recorded in terrestrial samples. The AlFe3+-rich pyroxenes originated at the expense of diopside-augite during the interaction with carbonate-aluminosilicate melt. Forsterite (Fo72–83) and hemoilmenite with up to 32 mol% geikielite (9.3 wt% MgO) also crystallized from the melt, leaving behind the residual calcic carbonate with minor MgO (1–3 wt%). Columnar habit of neoformed olivine growing across diopside-augite layers indicates rapid crystallization from eutectic liquid. Euhedral aragonite and apatite embedded in fine-grained calcite or aragonite groundmass indicate slow crystallization of the residual carbonatite around the calcite-aragonite stability boundary. Corundum exsolutions in rock-forming anorthite are products of superimposed low-pressure pyrometamorphic reworking during transport in alkali basalt. Concomitant alkali metasomatism produced neoformed interstitial sodalite, nepheline, sanidine, albite, biotite, Mg-poor ilmenite (10–18 mol% MgTiO3), Ti-magnetite and fluorapatite. Olivine-ilmenite-aragonite-calcite thermobarometry returned temperatures of 770–860 °C and pressures of 1.8–2.1 GPa, whereas plagioclase-amphibole thermobarometer yielded 781 ± 13 °C and 2.05 ± 0.03 GPa. The calculated pressures correspond to depths of 60–70 km. The calc-silicate xenoliths are most likely metamorphosed marbles; however, a magmatic protolith (metagabbro, metaanorthosite) cannot be ruled out owing to high Cr contents in spinels (up to 30 mol% chromite) and abundant Cu-sulfides.
Marco E. Ciriotti

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